The Romans



Seated bronze statuette of Jupiter, with thunderbolt. (VRoma: Louvre, Paris: Barbara McManus)


Statue of Juno, consort of Jupiter, with sceptre. (VRoma: Vatican Museums, Rome: Lisanne Marshall)

  • Annona Mythical personification of the annual food supply
  • Apollo (Greek) God of healing and prophecy . Pictures:
  • Asclepius (Greek) God of healing
  • Attis (Phrygian) Beloved of Cybele
  • Bacchus (Greek as Dionysus) God of wine.

Maenads celebrate the rites of Dionysus

Rites of Dionysus. (Illustration by John Pittaway from Picture Reference Ancient Romans, Brockhampton Press 1970)

  • Bellona Goddess of war
  • Bona Dea “Good Goddess”: unnamed spirit whose rites were attended only by women
  • Cardea Household goddess of door hinges
  • Castor & Pollux (Greek: also as Dioscuri) Two legendary heroes
  • Ceres (Identified with Greek Demeter) Goddess of agriculture
  • Consus God of the granary
  • Cybele (Phrygian) See Magna Mater
  • Diana (Identified with Greek Artemis) Goddess of light; also unity of peoples. Pictures:
  • Dis (Greek as Pluto) God of the underworld
  • Faunus (Identified with Greek Pan) God of fertility
  • Flora Goddess of fertility and flowers
  • Forculus Household god of doors
  • Fortuna (also Fors, Fors Fortuna) Goddess of good luck
  • Genius Protecting spirit. Picture:
  • Hercules (Greek) God of victory and commercial enterprises
  • Hermes See Mercury
  • Isis (Egyptian) Goddess of the earth
  • Janus God of doorways. Picture:
  • Juno (Identified with Greek Hera) Goddess of women. Picture above.
  • Jupiter (also Jove: identified with Greek Zeus) God of the heavens. Picture above
  • Juturna Goddess of fountains
  • Lar (plural Lares) Spirit of the household
  • Larvae (or Lemures) Mischievous spirits of the dead
  • Liber God of fertility and vine-growing (=Bacchus)
  • Libitina Goddess of the dead
  • Limentinus Household god of the threshold
  • Magna Mater (Phrygian as Cybele) “Great Mother”, goddess of nature
  • Manes Spirits of the dead
  • Mars God of war

Mars by Velasquez

Mars, painted by Velasquez (1599-1660). (VRoma: Prado Museum, Madrid: Susan Bonvallet)

  • Mercury (Identified with Greek Hermes) God of merchants
  • Minerva (Identified with Greek Athena) Goddess of crafts and industry
  • Mithras (Persian) God of light
  • Neptune (Greek Poseidon) God of the sea
  • Nundina Presiding goddess at the purification and naming of children
  • Ops God of the wealth of the harvest
  • Osiris (Egyptian) Consort of Isis
  • Pales God/goddess of shepherds
  • Penates Household spirits of the store cupboard
  • Picumnus & Pilumnus Agricultural gods associated with childbirth
  • Pomona Goddess of fruit
  • Portunus God of harbours
  • Priapus God of fertility in gardens and flocks


Painting of Priapus, symbolizing abundance, over door of vestibule of House of the Vettii, Pompeii. (VRoma: Barbara McManus)

  • Quirinus State god under whose name Romulus was worshipped
  • Robigus God of mildew
  • Sabazius (Phrygian) God of vegetation
  • Salus God of health
  • Saturn (Identified with Greek Cronos) God of sowing
  • Serapis (Egyptian) God of the sky
  • Silvanus God of the woods and fields
  • Sol God of the sun
  • Tellus Goddess of the earth
  • Terminus God of property boundaries
  • Venus (Identified with Greek Aphrodite) Goddess of love
  • Vertumnus (also Vortumnus) God of orchards
  • Vesta (Identified with Greek Hestia) Goddess of the hearth.
  • Volturnus God of the river Tiber
  • Vulcan God of fire

Venus by Titian

“Venus of Urbino”, painting by Titian (d. 1576). (VRoma: Uffizi Museum, Florence: Barbara McManus)

Overview of this page [Ref: 4.3]


Annotated list of gods, goddesses, and spirits worshipped by the Romans



Apollo pictures 1, 2, 3

Diana pictures 1 , 2

Links to other pages on the site:

The Classics Pages - the 'parent' site. Over 1000 pages of news, information, games and controversy about the life, literature, art and archaeology of the ancient world of Greece & Rome.

Site Map - the contents of the site as a table of contents.

Map of Italy showing places and other geographical features mentioned on this site. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group. NEW!

Gallery of illustrations used on the site. Many of the illustrations can be made larger than they are in the text by clicking on the appropriate image in the gallery. NEW!

List of maps used on the site. Maps can be enlarged when you see the magnifying glass (in some browsers).

Help on using "The Romans"

The Romans About the print version (second edition 2008), and how to order it.

Other Books by Antony Kamm

Acknowledgements - those who have contributed to the site

Email your comments or questions




Quiz on gods & goddesses

Click here to take a picture quiz on Roman gods and goddesses. (Photographs by Bonvallet, Chabot, Flood, Forum Group, and McManus courtesy of VRoma.)